The Noun Phrase

Nama : Annisa Fadilah

NPM : 15209922

Kelas : 4EA14

Mata Kuliah : Bahasa Inggris 2# (Tugas 3)

 

The Noun Phrase

Recognize a noun phrase when you see one.

A noun phrase includes a noun—a person, place, or thing—and the modifiers which distinguish it. You can find the noun dog in a sentence, for example, but you don’t know which canine the writer means until you consider the entire noun phrase: that dogAunt Audrey’s dogthe dog on the sofathe neighbor’s dog that chases our catthe dog digging in the new flower bed.

Modifiers can come before or after the noun. Ones that come before might include articles, possessive nouns, possessive pronounsadjectives, and/or participles.

Articles: a dog, the dog

Possessive nouns: Aunt Audrey’s dog, the neighbor’s dog, the policeofficer’s dog

Possessive pronouns: our dog, her dog, their dog

Adjectives: that dog, the big dog, the spotted dog

Participles: the drooling dog, the barking dog, the well trained dog

Modifiers that come after the noun might include prepositional phrasesadjective clausesparticiple phrases, and/or infinitives.

 

  • Prepositional phrases: a dog on the loose, the dog in the front seat, the dog behind the fence
  • Adjective clauses: the dog that chases cats, the dog that looks lost, the dog that won the championship
  • Participle phrases: the dog whining for a treat, the dog clipped at the grooming salon, the dog walked daily
  • Infinitives: the dog to catch, the dog to train, the dog to adopt

Less frequently, a noun phrase will have a pronoun as its base—a word like we,everybody, etc.—and the modifiers which distinguish it. Read these examples:

We who were green with envy

We = subject pronoun; who were green with envy = modifier.

Someone intelligent

Someone = indefinite pronoun; intelligent = modifier.

No one important

No one = indefinite pronoun; important = modifier.

 

The Noncount Noun

Recognize a noncount noun when you see one.

Nouns name people, places, and things. Many nouns have both a singular and plural form:a surfer/surfersa restaurant/restaurantsa pickle/pickles. Some nouns, however, have only a singular form; you cannot add a number to the front or an s to the end of these words. This group of nouns is called noncount. Read the following examples:

After two months of rainstorms, Fred carries his umbrella everywhere in anticipation of more bad weather.

Rainstorms = count noun; weather = noncount noun.

Because Big Toe Joe has ripped all four chairs with his claws, Diane wants to buy new furniture and find the cat another home.

Chairs = count noun; furniture = noncount noun.

When Mrs. Russell postponed the date of the research paper, smiles lit up the faces of her students, filling the room with happiness.

Smiles = count noun; happiness = noncount noun.

Because the beautiful Josephine will help Pablo with his calculusassignments, he never minds the homework from Dr. Ribley’s class.

Assignments = count noun; homework = noncount noun.

Know the different categories of noncount nouns.

The chart below illustrates the different types of noncount nouns. Remember that these categories include other nouns that are count. For example, lightning, a natural event [one of the categories], is noncount, but hurricane, a different natural event, is a count noun. When you don’t know what type of noun you have, consult a dictionary that provides such information.

Category

Examples

Abstractions

advice, courage, enjoyment, fun, help, honesty, information, intelligence, knowledge, patience, etc.

Activities

chess, homework, housework, music, reading, singing, sleeping, soccer, tennis, work, etc.

Food

beef, bread, butter, fish, macaroni, meat, popcorn, pork, poultry, toast, etc.

Gases

air, exhaust, helium, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, pollution, smog, smoke, steam, etc.

Groups of Similar Items

baggage, clothing, furniture, hardware, luggage, equipment, mail, money, software, vocabulary, etc.

Liquids

blood, coffee, gasoline, milk, oil, soup, syrup, tea, water, wine, etc.

Natural Events

electricity, gravity, heat, humidity, moonlight, rain, snow, sunshine, thunder, weather, etc.

Materials

aluminum, asphalt, chalk, cloth, concrete, cotton, glue, lumber, wood, wool, etc.

Particles or Grains

corn, dirt, dust, flour, hair, pepper, rice, salt, sugar, wheat, etc.

Know how to indicate number with noncount nouns.

Thunder, a noncount noun, cannot have an s added at the end. You can, however, lie awake in bed counting the number of times you hear thunder boom during a storm.

When you want to indicate number with a noncount word, you have two options. First, you can put of in front of the noncount word—for example, of thunder—and then attach the resulting prepositional phrase to an appropriate count word.

Kristina heard seven claps of thunder.

A second option is to make the noncount noun an adjective that you place before a count noun. Then you could write a sentence like this:

Thunderheads filled the sky.

Here are some more examples:

Noncount Noun

Countable Version

Advice

pieces of advice

Homework

homework assignments

Bread

loaves of bread, slices of bread

Smoke

puffs of smoke, plumes of smoke

Software

software applications

Wine

bottles of wine, glasses of wine

Snow

snow storms, snowflakes, snow drifts

Cloth

bolts of cloth, yards of cloth

Dirt

piles of dirt, truckloads of dirt

Understand that some nouns are both noncount and count.

Sometimes a word that means one thing as a noncount noun has a slightly different meaning if it also has a countable version. Remember, then, that the classifications countand noncount are not absolute.

Time is a good example. When you use this word to mean the unceasing flow of experience that includes past, present, and future, with no distinct beginning or end, thentime is a noncount noun. Read this example:

Time dragged as Simon sat through yet another boring chick flick with his girlfriend Roseanne.

Time = noncount because it has no specific beginning and, for poor Simon, no foreseeable end.

When time refers to a specific experience which starts at a certain moment and ends after a number of countable units [minutes, hours, days, etc.], then the noun is count. Here is an example:

On his last to Disney World, Joe rode Space Mountain twenty-seventimes.

Times = count because a ride on Space Mountain is a measurable unit of experience, one that you can clock with a stopwatch.

 

Penggunaan a and an

 

Every night, I take a coffee for my father and we begin talk about business, football, and many other things.  (Dalam kalimat ini, tidak begitu spesifik jenis kopi apa yang dihidangkan. Tidak ada kopi spesifik yang mereka sukai dan tentu mereka bisa saja berganti-ganti jenis kopi.)
Call a policeman when you see the robber walk here. (Kalimat tersebut hanya menunjukkan bahwa seseorang diharuskan untuk memanggil polisi, siapapun itu apakah ia polisi gemuk, kurus, wanita, atau pria, tentu tidak masalah. Karena yang terpenting adalah polisi.)
Ingat bahwa penggunaan a/an harus melihat pada kata huruf yang paling awal di sebuah kata. Jika konsonan, maka gunakanlah a, dan jika vocal maka gunakanlah an. Berikut aturan lengkap sistem penggunaan kedua hal tersebut.

  • A + Sebuah kata benda yang mempunyai konsonan di awal kata. Contoh : a zoo, a mountain, a chair, a bike, a fan, a book, dan a ruler.
  • A + Sebuah kata benda yang dimulai dengan bunyi konsonan. Meskipun kata benda ini dimulai dengan huruf vocal, tetapi jika bunyinya konsonan maka sudah pasti tetap menggunakan A. Contoh : a university, a user, dan a unit. Ketiga kata benda tersebut memang diawali dengan huruf vocal, namun kesemuanya dibaca dengan awalan “yoo” (yoo-zer, yoo-nit).
  • An + Sebuah kata benda yang diawali dengan huruf vokal baik penyebutannya maupun kata-katanya itu sendiri. Contoh : an apple, an airplane, an axe, an ant, an egg, dan an idiot.

Itulah hal-hal yang harus Anda ketahui dalam penggunaan a/an, kemudian pada tahap selanjutnya Anda akan diberikan pemahaman khusus mengenai penggunaan the.

Penggunaan the

I usually read the book in a bus when I go to school. (Kita disini sedang berbicara sebuah buku yang sudah jelas maksudnya. Bisa jadi, seseorang di dalam kalimat tersebut hanya membaca satu buah buku setiap ia berangkat sekolah.)
I am going give you the video game next week. (Video game yang akan diberikan sudah jelas maksudnya, mungkin video game tersebut merupakan video game favorit yang sangat diinginkan oleh lawan bicara seseorang dalam kalimat tersebut.
Secara garis besar, penggunaan the dalam kalimat verbal dan tulisan mencakup kepada hal tersebut. Kemudian, ada aturan penting mengenai penggunaan the dalam sistem geografi yang akan dijelaskan dalam poin-poin berikut ini.

Jangan gunakan The pada sistem Geografi berikut ini:

  1. Sebagian besar negara atau wilayah (Misalkan Canada, China, New Zealand)
  2. Kota, ibu kota kota atau negara (Misalnya Ottawa, Paris, California, France)
  3. Jalan (Misalnya Front Street, Lakeview Avenue, Dogwood Crescent)
  4. Danau (Misalnya Lake Ontario, Lake Placid, Bear Lake, Lake Toba)
  5. Teluk (Misalnya Fundy Bay)
  6. Gunung (Misalnya Kilimanjaro, Krakatau, Mount Everest)
  7. Benua (Misalnya America, Africa, Australia, Asia)
  8. Pulau (Sumatra, Java, Madagaskar)

Gunakan The sebelum nama-nama berikut ini:

  1. Sungai, samudra, laut (misalnya the Mississippi River, the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean)
  2. Teluk yang menggunakan “bay” di awal (misalnya the Bay of Fundy, the Bay of Bengal)
  3. Semenanjung (misalnya the Persian Gulf, the Arabian Peninsula)
  4. Pegunungan (misalnya the Rockies, the Dolomites, the Laurentians, the Bukit Barisan)
  5. Kutub (misalnya the North Pole)
  6. Wilayah geografis (misalnya the Middle East, the South)
  7. Padang pasir dan hutan (misalnya Gobi Desert, the Black Forest)

Other, Another an Others

Other menunjuk pada sesuatu yang berbeda. Jadi misalnya untuk postingan yang sedang Anda baca ini saya bisa mengatakan:

  • I write other post in this blog.

Saya menulis postingan lain yang berbeda dengan postingan sebelumnya.

 

Another menunjuk pada sesuatu yang merupakan tambahan. Contohnya ketika saya memakan sepotong kue dan saya mau tambah lagi, maka saya gunakan “another”:

  • I ate cookie for dessert and I want another one (tambah satu kue lagi)
  • I need another glass of coffee (tambah satu gelas kopi lagi)

 

Others menunjuk pada objek/benda (jamak) yang lain ketika kita tidak menyebut bendanya. Misalnya kita ingin menyebut beberapa orang (people) selain Anda yang tidak ingin pergi nonton bersama Anda. Kita bisa mengganti “people” dengan “others”. Kalimatnya:

  • The others didn’t want to go the movie, even though I did. (The others disini menggantikan orang lain (other people)).

Jadi kita tidak perlu mengulangi mengucapkan objek/benda, cukup dengan others.

Contoh:

  • “The other clothes were ugly” bisa diganti dengan “The others were ugly”
  • “The other people were watching the movie” bisa diganti dengan “The otherswere watching the movie”.

Sunber:

  1. http://www.chompchomp.com/terms/nounphrase.htm
  2. http://www.chompchomp.com/terms/noncountnoun.htm
  3. http://www.caramudahbelajarbahasainggris.net/2013/05/Aturan-Penggunaan-a-an-the-dalam-Bahasa-Inggris.html#.UcsQxOeeM8o
  4. http://letspeakenglish.info/2010/10/12/perbedaan-other-another-dan-others/

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